After two moist autumns, the cereal drilling season has acquired off to an early begin and there are issues over the implications for blackgrass management and the barley yellow dwarf virus danger – particularly as aphid numbers are already excessive.
In oilseed rape, crops are variable and a few later-drilled crops are prone to get written off after the flea beetle onslaught.
See additionally: Recommendation on clamping sugar beet for optimum harvest storage
Cereal drilling has began within the area with growers deciding to utilize dry situations and comparatively good seed-beds to get crops established in good situations.
There may be the standard discuss elevated danger of barley yellow dwarf virus and delaying drilling within the combat in opposition to blackgrass, nonetheless it’s comprehensible that after the final two moist autumns there may be the temptation to go sooner than we actually ought to to make sure getting autumn drilling performed in good situations.
If so, categorise fields into low, medium and excessive blackgrass strain, and begin by drilling the decrease strain fields first.
Flufenacet will once more type the cornerstone of pre-emergence herbicide remedies, and relying on cropping and area historical past, it is going to be partnered with both diflufenican, pendimethalin or aclonifen, with the addition of tri-allate the place larger management is desired. Whichever chemistry is used, consideration might be paid to software to get the perfect management from this operation.
Barley yellow dwarf virus could cause vital yield loss in cereals, so monitoring of crops this autumn is important to establish aphid flights into particular person fields. Pyrethroid pesticides are the primary management for choice exterior of tolerant varieties, take note of buffer zones as all merchandise aren’t the identical.
Bear in mind tolerant varieties aren’t resistant and may act as a supply of virus, so could profit from a single insecticide remedy.
Oilseed rape this yr is variable as soon as once more. Crops drilled previous to mid-August straight into stubbles look nicely the place moisture has been conserved.
Diet has aided institution massively, particularly from hen manure and digestate, the place there may be noticeably much less flea beetle harm. I’m placing this right down to the scent placing the flea beetle off.
Later drilled crops have struggled to get going, and have been smaller when the flea beetle turned up in drive simply after the August financial institution vacation. I anticipate extra of those later drilled crops might be written off within the subsequent few weeks except a miraculous turnaround happens
Arable Alliance (Yorkshire)
Good situations within the second half of September have allowed speedy progress to be made with cereal drilling regardless of some experiencing delays to seed deliveries. Cultivations and remaining seed-beds have been going very nicely.
With harvest ending earlier this yr in contrast with 2020 there appears to be extra urgency to drill as quickly as doable. The final two autumns have been tough so many have pushed on and have already sown vital areas.
Oilseed rape crops are establishing nicely with an enormous vary of development levels from cotyledon to eight true leaves. The early to mid-August drilled crops largely escaped the feeding harm from cabbage stem flea beetle. A number of later-sown crops have suffered some niggling flea beetle harm, however nothing to trigger crop destruction but.
Ranges of feeding harm from flea beetle has been variable even on the identical farm, with proximity to final yr’s oilseed rape, natural manures and cultivation technique all influencing components.
Fortunately, there was sufficient moisture and heat temperatures to permit crops to develop away from this pest. Now it’s a ready recreation to see what impact the flea beetle larvae could have within the coming months.
Slugs have been very lively in rising oilseed rape crops and arguably have been extra of a better danger of crop failure than flea beetle.
Blackgrass emergence in earlier sown crops of oilseed rape has been protracted, with some on the one leaf stage whereas others are tillering. This has made the timing of the contact-acting herbicide clethodim tough, as ideally the sooner blackgrass mustn’t grow to be too superior earlier than spraying. But we’re nonetheless wanting to attend and catch the later-emerging crops.
Giant flushes of weeds akin to cranesbill, cleavers and poppy are being managed by halauxifen-methyl plus picloram whereas they’re nonetheless small.
Mid-September sown crops of winter wheat and barley have emerged nicely to date. Pre-emergence herbicides have been utilized for blackgrass, ryegrass and sterile brome management. Sadly persistent durations of robust winds and heat temperatures have meant that whereas the cereals have been sown into moisture the soil floor has been very dry, which might have an effect on residual herbicide efficiency.
Peri-emergence herbicides are additionally being utilized in some conditions. Once more there was the problem of dry seed-bed surfaces so there may be concern that these residual herbicides, which type the spine of grassweed management in cereals, is not going to carry out in addition to hoped. These situations, mixed with earlier sowings, could have to be remembered subsequent June when assessing herbicide efficiency.
Aphids have been simple to seek out on volunteer cereals in oilseed rape. For the early-sown winter wheat and barley crops be looking out for aphids. It is a pest which doesn’t require controlling on the first sightings, however relatively, the second wingless technology that are the first vectors for spreading barley yellow dwarf virus.
Gout fly may also be problematic on early-sown crops. Whereas the flies themselves are tough to see within the area, it’s best to watch the small, white cigar-shaped eggs on the leaf floor and determine whether or not an insecticide is required earlier than the larvae enter the plant.
Vital harm from gout fly is sort of uncommon, with the crop usually capable of compensate for broken tillers.
Matford Arable (Devon)
Usually at the moment in September there could be little or no to report on, apart from the progress of the small space of oilseed rape that will get planted within the space.
First although, a fast evaluation of the harvest within the area. The winter barleys have been on the entire fairly good, with yields coming in at common to above common ranges, though these crops that suffered from delayed harvest have been down a bit on expectations. The winter oat yields once more have been fairly stable.
The wheat crop is the place the variability has crept in, with some crops performing extraordinarily nicely and others being disappointing. Having talked it over with my colleagues, the poor efficiency typically appears to be associated to poor septoria management, and the place issues seem to have gone unsuitable was very early within the season with both late-applied or not-applied T0. A really moist Could (as much as 250mm rain in some elements) then put the crop underneath excessive illness strain.
After two moist autumns the place growers have been caught out and never been capable of drill, or have planted into lower than supreme seed-beds, an early begin has been made to drilling this yr. At time of writing I’ve each barley and wheat crops on the cusp of rising. Probably the most fast and apparent menace to those crops goes to be from barley yellow dwarf virus.
There are giant numbers of aphids about in different crops so it’s honest to imagine that after fairly an extended spell of aphid beneficial climate, that we’re going to be dealing with some fierce strain from this very damaging virus. These crops would require a minimal of three purposes to maintain on prime of the issue.
The very early drilling is nearly sure to convey with it greater dangers of lodging and foliar illnesses as we progress via the 2021/2022 rising season.
The maize crop in lots of locations is now very shut to reap and with floor situations nonetheless good, this, hopefully, will imply that wheat crops deliberate for after these crops might be planted on time and into good seed-beds.
The few crops of oilseed rape which have gone in have by and huge established nicely regardless of the eye of each slugs and flea beetle. Will probably be one other week or two earlier than the image turns into completely clear on this crop, as there was some delayed emergence because of dry situations in some fields.
Welcome to my first Cropwatch of the brand new season. It will be good one yr to have the ability to say this with out the sensation that I wish to say “Good riddance” to the final season. Tough harvest, disappointing yields and an inflow of late weeds all make us wish to transfer on to subsequent yr. Issues with glyphosate and fertiliser haven’t helped. I bear in mind when getting nitrogen sorted was a Christmas job.
Drilling could have begun in earnest by the point you learn this. Hopefully, we’ll have had a little bit of rain to assist the pre-emergence herbicides work correctly. We haven’t had a lot alternative to get a grassweed chit this yr, with the late harvest and never a lot rain. As soon as once more, the significance of consolidating moved soil has proven itself this yr. Fields which were moved after which Cambridge rolled are significantly greener than those who have simply been tickled about.
Reviews are coming in of excessive ranges of aphids in varied elements of the nation. The place individuals have drilled early this may have to be monitored. Then we’ll have the annual battle of deciding what number of pesticides are wanted, and whether or not they’re truly doing something within the mild of elevated resistance. What would I give for the return of neonic seed remedies?
Early drilled oilseed rape appears to have escaped the worst ravages of flea beetle. Mid-drilled have been attacked fairly badly, however appear to be rising away from it now. Some late drilled crops have failed utterly because of lack of rain.
The talk about late versus early drilling will go on for ever, however all I can say is that my highest yielding OSR crop this yr was drilled on 2 August. If I’ve a crop that’s worryingly ahead at Christmas time, for me that’s fairly a pleasant drawback to have.